Nothing like a little human sacrifice for the holidays…


It’s widely known that Christmas has its roots in the blood-soaked pagan traditions for the winter solstice. What may be less well known is the origin of the delightful gingerbread people. At a symbolic level, these sugary snacks may be no more than a proxy for human sacrifice.

The tradition of backing cookies in human form dates back to the grandfather of modern-day Christmas, the Roman winter celebration of Saturnalia. At this time, Romans honored the god Saturn. His name stems from the Latin verb to sow (seed) — sero, satum — and “proclaims his original area of concern”1.

Between December 17th– 25th, Romans celebrated the rambunctious feast of Saturnalia by closing their courts, so misbehavior could reign supreme. During Saturnalia, nobody could be punished for injuring property or person.


A later day depiction of Saturnalia.

During Saturnalia, slaves feasted like their masters (who waited on them) and could even be lippy towards them. Roman citizens wore colorful dinner clothes deemed inappropriate for daytime. And, everyone, including slaves donned the pilleus, a conical hat indicative of free status.

In Lucian’s dialog Saturnalia, the ancient Greek poet recounts the festival’s observance. Drunkenness prevailed along with sexual license and naked “caroling” (going from house to house singing in the buff).

The revelry had its dark side however. At the beginning of the week, Roman officials picked a Lord of Misrule who, according to some sources, they forced to indulge in food and sensual pleasures throughout the week. On December 25th, they would kill this Lord of Misrule to extinguish the forces of darkness. Rape was widespread.

Celebrants ate human-shaped biscuits and gave wax dolls to children. “A charming custom, no doubt, but with a macabre past,” writes Alexander Murray about the wax dolls. “Even contemporaries thought this probably a vestige of human sacrifice, of children, to aid the sowing2.”


The existence of Celtic human sacrifices and the veracity of the wickerman legend remain controversial. However, you can’t help but notice the similarity in these symbols.

The flavor of Saturnalia’s human-shaped biscuits is not recorded. Human-shaped biscuits continued to be eaten into the Middle Ages. (The form is probably more significant than the flavor.)

Elizabeth I had gingerbread cookies made in the likeness of some of her most important guests. This, however, makes me wonder who ate whose cookie. Did you eat your own biscuit, or did somebody else gobble “you” up? In either case, whether unconscious or deliberate, at a symbolic level important guests were consuming themselves or others.

Does our Christmas custom of baking gingerbread men hearken to a darker past? Are these cute cookies a vestigial proxy for human sacrifice? Their persistence through the millenia makes it seem likely. And, if that’s the case, then why do pagan winter solstice traditions linger on far beyond their founding religion?

  1. Alexander Murray, “Medieval Christmas,” History Today, December 1986 p. 32 []
  2. A. Murray, “Medieval Christmas,” History Today, December 1986 p. 33 []

Jamie Adair is the editor of History Behind Game of Thrones, a website about the history behind George RR Martin's "A Song of Ice and Fire" novels and the hit TV show, "Game of Thrones."


  • Reply December 31, 2014

    Watcher on the Couch

    I’d heard of Saturnalia though I hadn’t realised the Lord of Misrule used to be killed (so one can still learn even if not in the first flush of youth). There was a “Wickerman” horror film in the 1970s (the victim being played by Edward Woodward, late son-in-law of Roy Dotrice who is one of the readers of the ASOIAF audio books; though I’ve said on another thread “Bry-een” somewhat grates on me and don’t get me started on Prince Oberyn having a (to me at least) stage “Oirish” accent). I know there have been sacrificed bodies found in peat bogs in parts of Europe though I don’t know that they were linked to any winter festival. And there are the various versions of the “John Barleycorn” folk song, though they are linked to the harvest. I’m not sure if they are still made but in the UK there used to be a type of sweet (candy in the USA and Canada?) called jelly babies which looked like their name.

    Let me wish anyone reading this – at least near the time I type it near the turning of the year – .all the best for 2015.

    • Reply February 15, 2017


      I wasn’t aware of Saturnalia at all, but it’s definitely interesting to know. I wonder if that might not be part of the origin of the “lawlessness” of Devil’s Night (the night before Halloween, where kids do stupid s*** like vandalism, practical jokes, and sometimes arson), too? Though the police certainly *will* arrest them for it if the idiot in question is caught.

      Either sweet or candy works perfectly well (coming from the USA), and yes, we *do* have Jelly Babies, although they’re fairly difficult to find.

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