Your Help is Needed Urgently: Protect Edward’s IV’s Bloodiest Battlefield!


If you’re a Wars of the Roses enthusiast, even if you hate military history, please help protect the Towton battlefield – site of the bloodiest battle ever fought on English soil. Towton, the key victory that brought Edward IV to the throne, left roughly 20,000 to 50,000 men dead on a snowy, blood-soaked battlefield on Palm Sunday 1461.

On January 8th, only four days from now, the Selby District Council is voting on whether or not to allow the construction of a Traveller’s site within the new Towton battlefield boundary. The boundary is scheduled to change this spring, but it has not changed yet so this part of the battlefield site is still unprotected and vulnerable. See the Selby public notice page and the Towton Battlefield Society Facebook page.

Some historians, such as Annette Carson, have already objected to the plan to build on the new Towton site. But not enough people have objected yet to make a difference.

I’m not into military history, why should I care?

Towton is not only a battlefield location, it’s also a mass gravesite for approximately 50,000 people and a source of rich archeological evidence. Respect for the people who died at the site, regardless of how vainglorious the reason, is one reason not to allow construction on Towton.


Towton re-enactors pay a moment of respect for those buried on the site. Source: Creative Commons/Wikimedia.

Pre-twentieth century sites where archaeologists can find skeletons known to have died on a specific day are extremely rare at a global level. The only other known example is from the Swedish Battle of Wisby in 1361. In addition, Towton has preserved a rich variety of objects due its dry environment and unique soil, which is over a band of Magnesian Limestone. Independently from the history of war, we can learn a lot about how medieval people lived, including their health and diet, from the skeletons found at Towton.


Skeletons uncovered at the Towton site. Note the decent teeth on the far-right skull.

In some cases, this results in myth busting. Who was healthier the medieval nobles or the peasants? From Towton skeletons, we know that the average medieval peasant was in better health than many medieval nobles because the peasants primarily ate coarse grains. We know the peasants who fought at Towton ate grain because their molars were worn down and flat. (The nobles molars retained their uneven surface and many nobles, who lived primarily on meat, had more rotten teeth than the peasants.) We know the peasants were healthier from analyzing their bone composition.

What does the Towton battlefield site tell us about Edward IV? Before the Battle of Towton, both sides, eager to resolve the conflict, ordered no quarter [lodging] would be given. In other words, neither side would take prisoners or ransom off captives, so it was a fight to the death. In previous battles, Edward commanded to spare the common men. At Towton, however, Edward IV kept his promise to fight to the death – with savage results. When archaeologists examined skeletons from the mass grave found under Towton Hall, they discovered Edward’s men carried out his instructions with incredible brutality.


Towton Hall, where construction workers found, in 1996, a mass grave that is presumed to be executed Lancastrians – the men who got no quarter. Image courtesy of Towton Battlefield Society.

The vicious wounds inflicted on the captured men show the extreme rage Edward’s soldiers must have felt by this point in the conflict. Edward’s men must have tied the men’s hands – their forearms didn’t have any defensive wounds. Their instinct would have been to raise their arms in defense. Edward’s men also cut off their ears to keep as souvenirs of their hard and bitter slog to victory. Archaeologists learned the Yorkists took the Lancastrian men’s ears from the serrated knife wounds on their skulls.


This skull of the soldier known as “Towton 25” was hit eight times. For the grisly details, see this article in the Economist after you comment on the Selby Council’s page.

When Edward’s men finally killed their captives, they didn’t quickly behead or stab them. They repeatedly smashed their skulls with, most likely, pole axes and war hammers. Some victims had as many as thirteen blows the head; the Yorkist soldiers “overkilled” these men. Skull fractures indicate that any one of these blows would have been enough to kill them; however, Edward’s men still had enough energy after hours of fighting to unleash their wrath upon their now defeated enemies.

What about the Travellers?

I have the following on good authority: “The root cause of the issue is that the council was given a significant amount of time to address their past poor performance in relation to providing sufficient pitches for Travellers. They have failed to take sufficient action and current Human Rights law means that they can’t be moved on as they have nowhere to go.”

On a personal note, this doesn’t mean I’m not fully supportive of the Traveller’s plight, and I fully support creating a site in a different non-heritage location.

How do I let the Selby council know I want to protect the Towton battlefield?

You can leave a comment on the proposal page or email them ( If you email, please be sure to mention you object to the removal of the appeal to ref APP/N2739/C/09/2103054 to make the planning permission permanent to build a Traveller’s site on the soon-to-be-adjusted Towton battlefield site. The case officer is Claire Richards.

How do I leave a comment for the Selby council if I’m not in the UK?

You can do one of the following:

  • Comment by using a UK postal code, such as YO1 7HU, YO26 5SQ, or YO7 3RW. This is what I did since I saw non-UK residents doing the same. This may not be ideal, but it is a way to make your voice heard and make the council realize that people from around the world are watching their decision.
  • Email the Selby council directly before the vote on January 8th. at (or possibly

Where can I find  some terrific information about Towton?

The Towton Battlefield Society website. They also have Edward IV’s attainder list as well as databases of combatants and other information that may be of interest to genealogists: .

Some media articles with lots of color photos about Towton and its archaeology: the and Towton: Nasty, Brutish and Not that Short, “Towton was our worst ever battle, so why have we forgotten this bloodbath in the snow?” by Nigel Jones.

Blood Red Roses by Veronica Fiorato, Medieval Soldier in the Wars of the Roses by Andrew Boardman

If you are ever in the UK and care to make the trek to Yorkshire, the Towton Battlefield Society has battlefield or walks. This is the list of last year’s dates. Be sure to check with them if and when they are holding them this year.

Please Tweet about this issue, share this article on Facebook — and most of all leave a comment or email the Selby District council this weekend so the comments will be considered at the committee hearing.  


Jamie Adair is the editor of History Behind Game of Thrones, a website about the history behind George RR Martin's "A Song of Ice and Fire" novels and the hit TV show, "Game of Thrones."


  • Reply January 4, 2014

    Pamela Hardy

    Why this constant desire to destroy/deface/otherwise eradicate our country’s history? Why can it not be celebrated?

  • Reply January 4, 2014

    Brian Varaday

    I violently object to the erection of any building that is going to change the nature of the Towton battlefield.
    Come on Englishmen…… you have a proud heritage to protect here. Don’t allow greedy people playing a moneymaking game to destroy the memory of a significant day in English history.

  • Reply January 5, 2014

    Steven Bickley

    The Towton battle site is an important part of British history and should be preserved.

  • Reply January 5, 2014


    Hello. I’ve left a link to this page on BBC Look North (Yorkshire’s) Facebook page and they have commented back to say they will put it in their diary and have asked for a contact e mail address. I can leave my e mail address but I have no connection to Towton Battlefield Archeology Project (or any other society linked to the Towton Battlefield) – I just thought I’d share the news with them. Could I ask them to contact you? Or if you have any other info it would be much appreciated. Thank you.

    • Reply January 7, 2014

      Jaime Adair

      Yes, please ask them to contact me. jamie.adair at historydotgot. I will try to contact them immediately. I’m very sorry I didn’t see this before. Also, thank you very much!

  • Reply January 6, 2014

    Janet Green

    A travellers site at Towton Is completely inappropriate. There are no schools, medical centres or shops in the village, & few employment opportunities. If the Gallops need developing why not make the area into a wildlife walk or bridle path which could be enjoyed by visitors to the area.

  • Reply January 7, 2014

    Jaime Adair

    My apologies for missing all these comments and taking so long to approve them. I was checking, but somehow I missed them.

    Also, BTW, here are a couple more articles about the issue:
    1. From
    2. From Nerdalicious:

  • Reply January 12, 2020

    John Lumb

    My 16th Great Grandfather Sir Lionel Leo 1st Baron Welles de Welles fought on the Lancastrian side and was killed at Towton. I really do not feel it appropriate nor do I think he would be too impressed either.

    I detest travellers with every part of my body I am afraid

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